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Impacts and Adaptation > Coastal Zone Impacts
General Information
Regional Impacts
General Information
Coastal Zone Impacts
  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
This website, part of the EPA global warming impacts site, focuses on coastal changes due to global warming. The site provides an overview of the main issues of flooding, coastal surge, storm frequency and their impacts on coastal wetlands, coastal roads, ports and other infrastructure. Further, it contains links to a variety of other useful sites and information resources.
Sea Level Rise Reports
  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
A guided portal to information (maps, published articles, government reports) concerning sea level rise impacts on and projections for the United States.
Greenhouse Effect and Sea Level Rise: A Challenge for this Generation
  Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc., New York, NY. 325pp. 1984 Authors: M.C. Barth and J.G. Titus [Eds.]
This book covers issues related to sea level rise including the causes and effects of sea level rise, estimates, physical impacts and geomorphic responses, erosion, inundation and salinity intrusion, economic analyses, planning for coastal disasters, and implications for hazardous waste sites located in coastal floodplains. Although Van Nostrand Reinhold Company originally published the book, it is entirely written by EPA employee's and contractors, and is available in its entirety from the EPA Global Warming web site. (4.9 MB PDF)
Global sea level change: Determination and interpretation
  Review of Geophysics Vol. 33, Suppl., Americal Geophysical Union 1995 Authors: B.C. Douglas
This report was prepared by the American Geophysical Union on behalf of the U.S. National Committee for IUGG (International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics), 1991-1994. The full report was published as a supplement to Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 33, 1995.
Land Water Storage and Sea Level Rise
  NASA GISS Research Brief, January 2001 Authors: V. Gornitz
Greenhouse Effect and Sea Level Rise: The Cost of Holding Back the Sea
  Coastal Management, Vol. 19, Iss. 2, pp.171-204, 1991 Authors: J.G. Titus, R.A. Park, S.P. Leatherman, J.R. Weggel, M.S. Greene, P.W. Mausel, S. Brown, C. Gaunt, M. Trehan, and G. Yohe$File/cost_of_holding.pdf
This article examines the cost of protecting coastal communities from rising sea levels associated with climate change. It outlines specific strategies and assesses their effectiveness, benefits and costs. In addition, the analysis includes information about costs of sea level rise if no action is taken, drawing on mapping and climate prediction studies.
The Probability of Sea Level Rise
  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., 186 pp., Oct. 1995 Authors: J.G. Titus and V. Narayanan [Eds.]
The report develops probability-based projections that can be added to local tide-gage trends to estimate future sea level at particular locations. It uses the same models employed by previous assessments of sea level rise. The key coefficients in those models are based on subjective probability distributions supplied by a cross-section of climatologists, oceanographers, and glaciologists.
Impacts of Global Climate Change with Emphasis on U.S. Coastal Areas
  Year of the Ocean, 1998
This background discussion paper was prepared by U.S. federal agencies with ocean-related programs for the 1998 International Year of the Ocean.
Regional Impacts
A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the U.S. East Coast (1992)
  Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) Authors: V.M. Gornitz and T.W. White
The 29 data variables within A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the U.S. East Coast are designed for use by coastal planning, research, and management agencies in combination with appropriate climatological data. The database may be used to identify coastal zones that are vulnerable to coastal erosion and inundation from sea level rise or storm surge. The database presents data on coastal geology, geomorphology, elevation, erosion, wave heights, tide ranges, and sea levels for the U.S. east coast. These data may be used either by non-geographic database management systems or by raster or vector geographic information systems (GISs).
Coastal Populations, Topography, and Sea Level Rise
  NASA GISS Research Brief, March 2000 Authors: V. Gornitz
Hot Nights in the City: Global Warming, Sea-Level Rise and the New York Metropolitan Region
  Environmental Defense Fund, 36pp., 1999 Authors: J. Bloomfield, M. Smith, and N. Thompson [Staff Scientist]
This report is one of EDF's regional impacts studies, focusing on implications of climate change for the New York metropolitan area: sea-level rise and flooding, extreme heat and air quality. The report draws attention to human health and coastal impacts on homes, businesses and infrastructure based on several warming scenarios for the City. (pdf)
Maps of Lands Vulnerable to Sea Level Rise on the Northeast Coast
  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
This site provides links to regional maps and GIS data that highlight coastal areas vulnerable to inundation and flooding due to sea level rise. There are several maps of the Atlantic coast, including one for the New Jersey shore and another for Long Island. The maps use three elevation range categories. These maps were produced in conjunction with the report, "Maps of Lands Vulnerable to Sea Level Rise: Modeled Elevations along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts", originally published in Climate Research (2001).
Report of the Coastal Areas and Marine Resources Sector Team
  U.S. National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change, U.S. Global Change Research Program. NOAA coastal Ocean Program Decision Analysis Series No. #21. NOAA Coastal Ocean Program, Silver Spring, MD. 163 pp., 2000. Authors: D.F. Boesch, J.C. Field, and D. Scavia [Eds.]
This report is from the Coastal Areas and marine Resources Sector Team of the U.S. Global Change Research Program's, National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change.
Rising Seas: A View from New York City
  NASA GISS Research Brief, August 2000 Authors: V. Gornitz
Sea-Level Rise and Global Climate Change: A Review of Imapacts to U.S. Coasts
  Prepared for the Pew Center of Global Climate Change, 38pp. February 2000 Authors: J.E. Neumann, G. Yohe, R. Nicholls, and M. Manion
This report summarizes the key issues associated with sea-level rise and coastal resources. It discusses cost estimates for coastal property and infrastructure that may be inundated or require protection from rising seas and loss of coastal wetlands and other ecosystems, not measured by traditional cost estimates. Decision-makers will also find an assessment of policy responses to plan for the present and future management of coastal resources and infrastructure that weighs costs and benefits of various policy and planning responses. [PDF document]
The Vanishing Marshes of Jamaica Bay: Sea Level Rise or Environmental Degradation?
  NASA GISS Research Brief, December 2001 Authors: E.K. Hartig and V. Gornitz
  File last modified: 29 March 2005  
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